About 17,000,000 unwanted pregnancies occur on planet Earth every year, 90% of which could be prevented if the male and female half used modern methods of contraception correctly. And for this, the task of physicians is to provide complete information about all types of contraception and to choose a specific method suitable for them.
Natural methods of contraception
They are based on the physiological rhythms of the female reproductive system of a woman and the physiology of a man. They are one of the oldest methods. It includes the method of “coitus interruptus” and the calculation of the so-called “safe days” (temperature, cervical, symptomothermal, calendar methods, measuring the concentration of LH and FSH in the urine). All these types of contraception are the least effective, therefore, in the modern world, most use only the method of “coitus interruptus”. But few people know that a small amount of spermatozoa is released at the very beginning of sexual intercourse, and, according to scientists, the very “first” ones are the most mobile and viable. Therefore, according to statistics, 25% of couples using this method become pregnant in a year .
Their purpose is to prevent spermatozoa from entering the uterine cavity itself further into the fallopian tubes. Also, the use of female and male condoms (is the only means of contraception that protects you not only from unwanted pregnancy, but also from sexually transmitted infections , including HIV infection.
This type of contraception is used by more than 70,000,000 of the female half of the population worldwide.
The mechanisms of action of any drug are the suppression of ovulation and an increase in the viscosity of mucus in the cervix, which prevents sperm from entering directly into the uterine cavity.
Includes: combined oral contraceptives (COCs), mini-pills, subcutaneous implants, injectables, patches, rings, postcoital contraceptives.
– When used correctly, protection in 95-99% of cases against unwanted pregnancies
– Normalization of the menstrual cycle and hormonal background of a woman
– Prevention of diseases (osteoporosis, endometriosis, malignant and benign diseases of the mammary glands, ovaries and uterine body)
– Relief of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), reduction of dysmenorrhea
– Improving the condition of hair, skin and nails
– Increase the risk of thrombosis, especially in people over 35 and smokers.
– Do not protect against sexually transmitted infections , incl. HIV infection, hepatitis and syphilis.
– Risk of intermenstrual bleeding.
– The presence of contraindications and side effects.
Before you want to use this or that method of hormonal contraception, you should consult a doctor who will perform a thorough gynecological examination, and also prescribe a number of laboratory and instrumental research methods to exclude you from having contraindications for the use of hormonal contraceptives.
Spermicides are applied topically just before sexual intercourse. The mechanism is the destruction of the sperm. Available in various forms: ointments, creams, gels, suppositories. In our country, they are a fairly popular method of contraception due to ease of use and low cost.
This is a method of contraception using special means injected directly into the uterine cavity, which interfere with the meeting of the sperm and the egg.
– Non-drug – their action is associated with a local aseptic inflammatory reaction, which appears due to the presence of a foreign body in the uterus. Currently, they are practically not used, as they are ineffective methods and cause a large number of complications.
– Medicamentous – have a plastic base of different configurations (“T”-shaped, in the form of an umbrella, loops) with the addition of metal (copper, gold) or a hormone (gestagen-containing).
– Contribute to the obstruction of the implantation of the egg in the wall of the uterus (all intrauterine devices);
– Prevents ovulation (progestin-containing agents);
– Reduce the ability of spermatozoa to pass through the cervix (progestin-containing agents);
– It has a detrimental effect on the egg and spermatozoa (copper-containing agents).
If fertilization does occur, the onset of pregnancy is prevented by:
– Changes in local immunity and aseptic inflammation of the endometrium, as well as an increase in the number of macrophages;
– Contractile activity of the uterus and changes in peristalsis of the fallopian tubes;
– Changes in enzymatic and metabolic processes in the endometrium.
An intrauterine contraceptive is inserted on the 4th-8th day of the menstrual cycle, provided there is no pregnancy. In the conditions of our clinic, the introduction is carried out under the control of ultrasound together with the doctor of ultrasound diagnostics.
– High efficiency
– Valid from date of introduction
– Method reversibility
– Lack of daily control
– Increased risk of inflammatory diseases
– Does not protect against sexually transmitted infections
– Have a number of side effects and contraindications
Before the introduction, the doctor performs a thorough gynecological examination, and also prescribes a number of laboratory and instrumental research methods to exclude you from having contraindications for the introduction of an intrauterine contraceptive. Further, within 14 days after setting the contraceptive, you should limit physical activity, hot baths, taking uterotonics and laxatives, and completely exclude sexual intercourse. A second appointment with a gynecologist is necessary 7-10 days after the introduction of the contraceptive, then, if you have no complaints, after 3 months. In the future, medical examination provides for a visit to the gynecologist 2 times a year with a smear examination for flora from the urogenital tract.