First of all, the family must figure out what it expects from the birth of a child, how its life will change. Basically, the husband pays increased attention to his wife during her pregnancy, especially if the baby is long-awaited. But often after giving birth, everything changes. A young mother can no longer be so attentive to her husband, devoting more time to her offspring. Many men are offended, jealous of their own children with all the ensuing consequences. As a result, family harmony disappears, sometimes couples get divorced on this basis. Sometimes women themselves are not at all ready for motherhood. Some of them are even disappointed.
In order not to experience disappointment and minimize possible problems during preparation for pregnancy, it is recommended to honestly answer yourself the following questions:
Is it time to replenish the family?
Are some problems solved in this way?
Will this man be a good father?
Is my partner really ready and doe he want a baby from me?
Is there a willingness to “sacrifice” your time, career building, work?
Are there financial resources for the maintenance of children? Is there “space” for them in the apartment?
Are there serious apprehensions or undue tension when thinking about pregnancy and everything that comes with it?
Are you ready physically and mentally for hard maternal work?
Whom can you rely on in case of difficulties?
If there is no one to help, what will I do?
Do you need to talk frankly with your man and find out if he sees you as the mother of his children? Will he be able to help and make his comprehensive contribution to the development and maintenance of the family while his mother cannot work? Will he be able to solve the problematic issues associated with pregnancy and further – with the upbringing of offspring?
You need to check how similar the views of both spouses are on the situation, try on the “role” of parents. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare for the appearance of a new family member long before pregnancy in order to be aware of the inevitable changes . If it is difficult to understand this issue on your own, then there are trainings, courses where professionals will help you approach the adoption of a mature decision. It is important that the expectations, if not completely coincide, then not much differ from the upcoming reality. You need to be aware that pregnancy and the birth of a child will radically change your personal and joint life. It is advisable to write down the questions of interest on paper.
Consult with experts
You can come across such a stereotype that a woman is carrying a child, it means only she needs to be examined and go to the doctors. This is a big misconception that can be fatal! The offspring receives a genomic set from mother and father 50:50. And the latent diseases of the pope, especially those related to chromosomal rearrangements, will “result” in the birth of an heir with severe genetic defects, many of which are not compatible with life. Therefore, you need to plan and prepare for pregnancy together.
The couple should get advice from a geneticist. At the initial appointment, the doctor finds out the presence of chronic diseases and genetic abnormalities in one or both spouses, as well as in close blood relatives. It is advisable for all partners planning a pregnancy to consult a geneticist, since a sick child can also appear in healthy parents.
But this is especially indicated for people at risk:
hereditary pathologies in a husband, wife or family;
what medications have been taken recently;
whether there are children in the family with chromosomal mutations;
whether the work is associated with hazardous production;
age over 35 years.
Based on the results of the conversation, the geneticist will determine the feasibility of undergoing preconception screening. The analysis allows you to establish the genotype of a couple separately and assess the risks of genetic defects in offspring. Screening is performed for the most common inherited mutations. At high risks, corrective procedures or IVF are carried out. With in vitro fertilization and preimplantation diagnosis, such risks are reduced to almost zero.
In the period of preparation for pregnancy, you will need to consult a dentist, therapist, ophthalmologist, and with related problems, specialized specialists. So, there is a high risk of giving birth in patients with chronic nephritis, renal failure, hypertension, problems with the binocular apparatus. It is necessary to undergo preventive treatment, a wellness course in advance. A pregnant woman loses a large number of trace elements and vitamins, which damages her teeth, hair, nails, and skin. The dentist will sanitize the oral cavity, which will get rid of the likely source of infection, and will advise how to save the teeth.
You need to start pregravid preparation at least six months in advance. A woman goes to a gynecologist, a man – to a urologist-andrologist. After collecting an anamnesis, an initial examination, and getting acquainted with the medical record, doctors will prescribe a diagnostic complex that allows you to assess the reproductive function of the couple.
The causative agents of TORCH infections ( herpes virus, rubella and measles, toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus ) pose a great threat to health. They contribute to miscarriages, premature birth, the development of various defects in the child. To identify latent carriage, a woman must be tested for the detection of antibodies to this group of infections. The doctor finds out if there was a history of such diseases, since primary infection is most dangerous. If there were no pathologies, and antibodies to infections were not detected, then for the purpose of prevention, the woman is vaccinated against rubella. You can’t get vaccinated during pregnancy.
A preliminary comprehensive examination will avoid risks to your own health and the birth of a handicapped baby. In addition, when the expectant mother knows that nothing threatens her and her child, she will not be nervous, she will avoid unnecessary stress that can negatively affect pregnancy. All that remains for a healthy pregnant woman is to visit a gynecologist several times during the entire gestational period for an examination.
For the stronger sex, there is the main study by which fertility is judged – a spermogram. The ejaculate is given for analysis only by masturbation, for which a separate room is allocated in the clinic, the patient is given a labeled container. The sperm is immediately sent to the laboratory.
Both partners must test:
general blood, biochemistry, group, rhesus;
urethral swab for bacterial inflammation;
PCR test to exclude sexually transmitted diseases;
FLG to exclude tuberculous foci in the lungs;
ultrasonography of the pelvic organs;
blood for HIV, hepatitis, RV.
A woman in preparation for her pregnancy undergoes a gynecological examination, during which a vaginal swab is taken to rule out infections. The doctor assesses the state of the endometrioid layer of the uterus, which at the very beginning of pregnancy will play one of the main roles.
After fertilization, the egg descends from the fallopian tube into the uterine cavity, where the embryo implants into the endometrium. Whether the woman becomes pregnant or not will depend on how securely the embryo is fixed. If pregnancy occurs, the embryo will be fed and oxygenated from the endometrium until the placenta is formed. Therefore, if there is an insufficiency of the endometrioid layer, its depletion, a small thickness, then you need to undergo treatment and properly prepare the shell for pregnancy. If a woman does not undergo a preliminary diagnosis, does not know that she has problems with the endometrium, then either the embryo will not attach to it and menstruation will begin, or there will be a spontaneous interruption at an early stage of gestation.
Transvaginal sonography will allow you to determine the condition of the internal reproductive organs, their shape, size, possible developmental anomalies that may interfere with the onset or bearing of pregnancy. With certain defects, it is generally better not to become pregnant, as this can pose a threat to life or health. Many girls who decide to become a mother or accidentally become pregnant, but not examined, do not know that such a problem may arise when, according to strict indications, the pregnancy will have to be terminated.
Based on the results of mandatory diagnostics, as well as in case of chronic diseases, additional studies may be prescribed. For example, tumor markers, oncocytology, TRUS (for men), MRI, hormonal status, genetic screening, hysteroscopy. At the end of the diagnostic procedures and obtaining all the information about health, the doctor will determine whether the man is capable of conception, how ready the female body is for pregnancy, when to start preparing, what to do first.
You can often hear that there are no health problems and it is not necessary to be examined. But some pathologies can proceed latently for a long time before the deployment of the clinical picture. This is especially true of such dangerous diseases as hepatitis or HIV. But if a woman becomes pregnant, it will be too late to be treated. That is, during pregnancy, you can not take most medicines and undergo radiation diagnostics (X-rays, computed tomography, studies using contrast agents).