Iranian carpet, a full-fledged mirror of Iranian culture and originality

Iranian carpet is a mirror of the whole culture, originality and art of Iran. This original art has been kept alive in ancient times by the art of hand weavers and by Iranian culture.

The art of carpet weaving is one of the oldest and most original arts among Iranians. As the oldest carpet in the world is an Iranian work and belongs to the Achaemenids period. The point is that this art, in addition to its originality and antiquity, is gaining more and more popularity among different nations and cultures. The beauty of the design and the role is one of the main factors in the permanence of this art that Iranian artists have turned the Iranian carpet into a unique work by observing the aesthetic points in the text and the border of the carpet.

Iranians have always been interested in using handmade carpets in their homes and have tried to give more beauty and warmth to their homes by using this unique art. There are different types of Iranian carpets, and knowing them will help you make the right choice when shopping. This article tries to introduce you to this original Iranian art by introducing the best Iranian carpets, types of carpets and various designs.

History of Iranian carpets

Persian carpet is a symbol of art, genius, culture and originality. Iranians have been pioneers in carpet weaving who, over time, with care, creativity and taste, have brought this art to a level of perfection that can be considered as a representative of Iranian culture and art. The first documentary evidence of Iranian art in carpet weaving can be found in Chinese texts Sassanids (224-641 AD) searched. Historical evidence shows that the use of carpets has been common since the Achaemenid period

It should not be forgotten that the materials used in carpets, such as wool, silk, cotton, etc., often rot over time, and this makes it difficult for archaeologists and historians to identify the age of the carpet. However, historical evidence indicates the existence of magnificent carpets in the Achaemenid court; As it is said, Alexander the Great was surprised and delighted to see the magnificent Persian carpets in Pasargadae. In the age of Sultanate of the Seljuks and the Ilkhanids also used carpet weaving as a valuable and profitable commercial art; It is said that the mosques of that period were covered with valuable Iranian carpets. Many historical quotations testify to the antiquity and originality of this historical art. For example, there are quotes from Xenophon: “in the Achaemenid court, there were wide carpets that were replaced every once in a while due to decay and were replaced by other carpets.

European archaeologist Kenneth Krusha also wrote: “In the history of ancient Iran, we come to a period in which Persepolis It is set on fire by Alexandria and the magnificent carpets of the Achaemenids are burned in the fire.”

Ukrainian Scholar Rodenko also wrote about this: “Alexander spread delicate but fleshy carpets in front of his throne.”

Pazyryk carpet

The oldest carpet in the world is called the Pazyryk carpet, which was discovered in the icy tomb of one of the Scythian rulers from 1326 to 1328  , and was named so because of its location in the  ” Pazyryk Valley”. There were other ancient objects next to this carpet. This carpet is made of wool and has a square shape, each side of which is 1.98 meters  long.

The Pazyryk rug is painted with a floral border and depicts riders, grazing  deer and legendary animals with eagle heads and lion bodies . Sergei Rodenko, the discoverer of this carpet,  after examining the structure of the carpet and its drawings, noticed the very similarity of the motifs of this carpet with the reliefs  of Persepolis  . Although  most scholars consider this rug to belong to the  Parthian  or  Median  period, there are still differing theories about the true antiquity of this rug. 

Gabbeh – A choice for fans of natural fibers

Gabbeh sample with narrow and regular text

Gabbeh is one of the types of Iranian handmade carpets that is usually thicker and coarser woven than other Iranian carpets. One of the characteristics that distinguishes this type of carpet from other types of carpets is that natural wool yarn and natural plant dyes are used for Gabbeh weaving.

Glim – Special choice

Hand-woven kilim without lint

Glim is a kind of handmade and lint-free underlay that is often woven with natural wool. In the texture of these underlays, geometric designs such as rhombuses, hexagons, quadrangles and triangles are often used, and sometimes natural and animal shapes are used in the illustration of kilims. Weaving, tying koji wood, fixing the wefts and weaving are among the stages of weaving the kilim. The types of kilims in terms of texture can also be divided into three categories: plain weave, embossed and varnish.

Jajim; An original hand-woven fabric

Jajim is a delicate handicraft and website

Jajim is known as flat weaves that are woven with long length and short width. Jajim is a thin and more delicate fabric than kilim. Jajim is woven in different areas and the inhabitants of each area give it a special name. For example, Jajim in Ilam is called “Jool”.

Carpets of the northern regions of Iran; Carpets with special design

Rudbar, Kelardasht and Bandar-e-Turkmen are among the areas known for their triangular carpet texture. Dark red is the predominant color in most Turkmen carpets.

Tabriz carpet; One of the best Iranian carpets

Tabriz carpet

Carpet weaving in Tabriz dates back to the Safavid period and is one of the finest woven carpets in Iran. The raw material of Tabriz carpet is mostly silk or wool. Among the characteristics of Tabriz carpet, the following can be mentioned: 

  • The textured carpets of this region are finely woven.
  • They are often woven in high numbers.
  • The lint of Tabriz carpets is often short.

These so-called visual carpets have depth, which is due to the use of light shadow technique in the texture of the carpets.

Kashan carpet

Kashan carpet

Sleep height in Kashan woven carpets is medium and the carpets of this region are mostly fine-textured and delicate. Previously, the color of the carpets in this region was formed by bright colors with high contrast; But today, according to the customer’s taste and market taste, soft colors are used in the texture of carpets in this region. Common patterns of carpets and Kashan rugs. They are mainly a combination of decorative patterns. The color of Kashan carpets and rugs can be limited to ivory white, gray, brown and tobacco.

Qom carpet; A fabric of elegance

The carpet weaving industry was first popular among the nomads and villagers of Qom; But gradually, due to the importance of this industry in trade, it spread among other parts of the province. Qom woven carpets initially entered the market with not very delicate yarns, but gradually Qom artists with their genius and taste began to weave very delicate and regular carpets. The elegance and order of Qom handmade carpets is such that the viewer doubts that these carpets may be machine-made.The cities of Qom, Tabriz and Kashan have the most popular Iranian hand-woven carpets

Common designs of Qom carpets can be considered as Shah Abbasi bergamot, taboos, altar and hunting ground. The colors used in Qom carpets were initially limited to four to six colors, but over time, the range of colors used has increased and now more than 40 different and distinct colors are used in the carpet texture of this region. The most popular Iranian handmade carpets belong to the cities of Tabriz, Kashan and Qom; However, your personal criteria also determine which line of carpet is best for you, depending on the characteristics of the carpets and your taste.

Choosing your carpet

One of the important factors in choosing a carpet and determining its quality. If you are going to buy machine-made carpets, pay attention to the smell of the carpet, the transparency of the colors and the amount of adhesion. If the carpet you choose does not smell of plastic, its material should be such that when you touch it, your hand slides easily on it and its color and patterns are transparent, it can be said that you have made the right choice and your carpet is made of acrylic. Acrylic carpets are more resistant to environmental factors.

Pay attention to the number of longitudinal and transverse nodes! One of the important factors in choosing the right carpet is its density. The transverse density of the carpet is obtained by counting the knots in the width of the carpet and the longitudinal density is obtained by counting the knots along the length; But if your question is how the number of knots is related to the quality of the carpet, we must say that the denser your carpet is, the more compact the texture and therefore the stronger it is.

When buying carpets, especially machine-made carpets, be sure to pay attention to the serial, valid carpet warranty and warranty. Paying attention to this issue can save you from the trap of profiteers who offer low-quality carpets instead of genuine carpets.

Pay attention to the size of handmade carpets; This does not mean over-sensitivity; Because in natural carpets, the difference in size of a few centimeters is natural and negligible; But the difference in size of more than a few centimeters is a defect in carpets. Therefore, we recommend that when buying handmade carpets, be sure to ensure the symmetry of the carpet by folding the carpet and matching its edges.

Carpet lint is an important factor in carpet quality. To check the carpet lint, pay attention to their softness and roughness. In addition, soft villi do not clean coarse villi well and are less durable.

Just do not look at the carpet! A key issue that may be forgotten when buying a rug is checking the back of the rug. If the carpet is rotten or scratched, it certainly has less value and credibility. To check this, look at the back of the carpet. The cracked parts on the back of the rug show signs of tingling and have a slight fracture-like sound when folded.

Why not to admire your Persian carpet already today?

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