Scope of Traditional Chinese Medicine Surgery
Traditional Chinese medicine surgery has a long history. There have been many changes in the medical system in the past, and the scope of diseases included in the medical monographs is also different. Therefore, the boundaries of the scope of traditional surgery are not clear. However, the main basis for the division of disciplines is that most of the diseases are on the body surface, and also occur in the viscera, which can be seen by the naked eye and are locally tangible, or require external treatment as the main treatment. This includes sores, anorectal, skin, male anterior vagina, breast, peripheral vascular diseases, galls, tumors, rocks, mouth, eyes, ears, nose, throat and other diseases, as well as frustrations, gold blade injuries, water and fire burns, Insect bites and so on. Due to social progress and academic development, the scope of modern Chinese medicine surgery has been adjusted. The original diseases such as golden blade injuries, bruises, ear, nose, throat, eye and oral cavity have been differentiated into relevant specialties, except for sores, galls, tumors, and sores. In addition to rock, skin, breast, anorectal, male vulva, peripheral blood vessels and other traumatic diseases, it should also include internal carbuncle (such as liver carbuncle, intestinal carbuncle), acute abdomen, hernia, genitourinary diseases and sexually transmitted diseases.
History of Traditional Chinese Medicine Surgery
Surgery of traditional Chinese medicine originated in primitive society, formed in the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, developed in the Qin, Han, Sui and Tang Dynasties, and became more mature after the Song Dynasty. But what needs to be mentioned in particular is that after the Song Dynasty, TCM surgery failed to be systematically developed and perfected. At that time, doctors advocated “taking analogy”, “all inside must be formed outside”, and “external disease internal treatment”. For surgical diseases, there is more and more emphasis on holistic treatment with obvious characteristics of internal treatment, decoction, acupuncture and other non-surgical treatments. The external treatment method has become the mainstream, and major surgical operations involving internal organs such as the brain, thoracic and abdominal cavity are less involved, resulting in unprecedented constraints on the development of surgical techniques. TCM surgery has gradually formed a holistic view and other TCM theories as the guidance, It is a main clinical subject with the combination of internal and external traditional Chinese medicine as the main treatment method (not the main method of surgery), and surgical diseases with the main body surface symptoms as the main scope of diagnosis and treatment.
Traditional Chinese Medicine Surgical Treatment
Surgical treatment methods are divided into two categories: internal treatment and external treatment. The method of internal treatment is basically the same as that of internal medicine. However, there are methods such as penetration of pus and venom, as well as the application of some more unique prescriptions in combination with certain surgical diseases, which are significantly different from internal medicine. It is the characteristic of surgical internal treatment. The methods of external medicine, surgical therapy and other therapies such as drainage, cotton padding, and thread hanging in the law are unique to surgery. During the clinical trial, due to the different types of diseases, the conditions are different, sometimes relying on external treatment to achieve full results, and some are cured by special internal treatment. But generally speaking, most surgical diseases must be treated both externally and internally, and complement each other to enhance the efficacy.
1. Internal governance
In addition to treatment based on the overall concept of syndrome differentiation, it should also be based on the occurrence and development of surgical diseases, such as the three different development stages of the initial onset of the sore, pus, and post-ulceration (that is, the initial accumulation of toxic toxin, meridian obstruction, Qi and blood stagnation; the purulent stage is stasis for a long time and heat, and carrion becomes pus; after ulceration, it is sepsis leakage and righteous qi loss). The three general principles of treatment are established. Then follow this rule and apply specific treatment methods, such as relieving the surface, clearing away heat, and harmonizing. Only after establishing the general principles and methods of treatment and choosing appropriate prescriptions can we achieve a targeted and better curative effect.
2. External governance
External treatment is a unique treatment method in surgery. The application of external treatment is the same as internal treatment. In addition to treatment based on syndrome differentiation, different treatment methods must be selected according to the different development processes of the disease. Commonly used methods are divided into three categories: drug therapy, surgical therapy and other therapies. Drug therapy is based on the different parts of the disease and the development and changes of the course of the disease. The drugs are made into different dosage forms and applied to the affected area, so that the power of the medicine can reach the treatment method of the disease. Commonly used are plasters, ointments, hoop medicines, herbal medicines, admixtures and so on. Surgical therapy is a treatment method that uses various instruments to perform manual operations, and it occupies a very important position in surgical treatment. Commonly used methods include incision method, cautery method, bianstone method, picking method, thread hanging method, ligation method and so on. Other therapies include drainage, cotton padding, acupuncture, fumigation, ironing, heat drying, staining, cryotherapy, and laser therapy.
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