Before getting to the deeped insight of advancement of Chinese gynecology we will first list some notable works in the field that could be very useful for Western doctors to pay attention to and initiate the research in fellowship with sinologists.
1. “Jingxiao Chanbao” also known as “chanbao”, written by Tang Zanyin. It was written in 853 AD.
The book advocates that during pregnancy, it is important to nurture the fetus and protect it, and to treat it with emphasis on regulating qi and blood, and replenishing the spleen and kidney. This book is the first obstetric monograph China. The sequel at the end of the book also contains the contents of some famous obstetrics works of the Song Dynasty, which enriches the content of the book and has an important influence on the development of obstetrics in later generations.
2. “Women’s Remedies”, also known, written by Song Chen Ziming. It was written in 1237.
“School Notes for Women’s Remedies” was compiled by Ming Xueji’s “School Notes for Women’s Remedies”. Xue Ji made additions and deletions to parts of the original book, and added notes and treatments one by one. This book has detailed theory and clear entries. It first explains the physiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and protection of the 8 phylogeny including meridians, pregnancy, childbirth, and belt, which will have a certain influence and enlightenment on later generations.
3. “Handan Manuscript” was written by Ming Zhao Xianke. It was written in 1617.
The whole book is not divided into volumes. First, discuss the physiological characteristics of women different from men. It is proposed that Tiangui is a substance that promotes human growth and reproduction, and the fire of life is the ruler. Then it discusses common gynecological diseases and gynecological miscellaneous diseases. This book emphasizes the spleen and kidney, and advocates the doctrine of Mingmen. It is believed that gynecological diseases are related to qi and blood imbalance, weakness of the qi, and dysfunction of the liver, spleen and kidney. Nourish water and fire for the Lord.
4. “Jingyue Quanshu·Guide for Women” was written by Ming Zhang Jiebin. It was written in 1624.
“The Complete Book of Jingyue” is Zhang Jiebin’s summary of his predecessors and life experience, based on the opinions of the public, and edited in his later years. His academic view “Yang is not surplus, yin is always insufficient” is Zhang Jiebin’s famous view on the state of yin and yang of the human body, emphasizing that yin and yang interact and transform each other. Yang, yang cannot be without yin”. These discussions have a profound impact on gynecology, and the treatment of gynecological diseases focuses on nourishing essence and blood to regulate menstruation. He believes that “women rely mainly on blood, and if blood is prosperous, the meridian can be adjusted…. Therefore, the essence of Yuanjing is to nourish the spleen and stomach to provide the source of blood; the room for nourishing kidney qi to soothe the blood, knowing the two, then do the best “The law of fetal fertility advocates that “it is the most good to take medicine according to the meridian of the syndrome and the meridian; if it is the holy medicine of Atractylodes macrocephala and Scutellaria baicalensis for fetal resuscitation, it is rarely wrong to use it.” As for the sixth Eleven-volume ancient prescriptions, a collection of 186 prescriptions, including his own effective empirical prescriptions, are still commonly used in clinical practice.
5. “Ye’s Nvke Syndrome and Treatment” The proper name “Ye Tianshi Nvke’s Syndrome and Treatment”, the original author is unknown, and the name is written by Ye Gui. It was written in 1746.
The whole book discusses women’s diseases and syndromes in a comprehensive way, with a complete set of prescriptions and medicines, and is focused on practical medical education | net. Certain disease statements can refute secular claims, such as on infertility, which is called “secular masters, this is not a valid argument.”
6. “The Essentials of Women’s Science” was written by Qing Chen Xiuyuan. It was written in 1803.
The book regulates menstruation and emphasizes the spleen and stomach, nourishes the blood and invigorates the spleen, clears away heat and relieves the qi before the fetus. The length of the discussion is small, but the key to it is to collect the best of predecessors and Chen’s own experience, and it can be a good reference book for TCM gynecology.
7. “Fu Qingzhu Nǚke” was written by Fu Shan in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. The book was written in the 17th century, and the first issue began in 1827.
The academic theory of the book focuses on the liver, spleen, and kidneys, and the treatment focuses on cultivating qi and blood, and regulating the spleen and stomach. Fu scholarly respects the classics but not the ancients, is good at originality, and has a unique style. The prescriptions contained in the prescriptions are not only based on the effective prescriptions of the predecessors, but also included in a large number of effective empirical prescriptions created by themselves. Many of its prescriptions have become famous in gynecology in modern times, such as Wandai Decoction, Yihuang Decoction, Shenghua Decoction, etc., which are favored by clinicians . This book is an important work in Obstetrics and Gynecology. It has rigorous principles and remarkable curative effects. The combination of prescriptions and medicines has a great influence on obstetrics and gynecology in later generations.
BRIEF HISTRORY OF TCM GYNECOLOGY
TCM gynecology is one of the important components of TCM. It is gradually established and enriched in the formation and development of TCM. The history of medical development is inseparable from the historical influence of socio-political and economic development. For this reason, we divide the development history of TCM obstetrics and gynecology into ten historical stages.
1. Xia, Shang and Zhou era (2178 BC-770 BC)
Chinese ancestors in ancient times have discovered some drugs in their labor and life, and have accumulated preliminary medical experience. By the Xia, Shang, and Zhou epochs, the obstetrics and gynecology of TCM had germinated, and there were mainly records about dystocia, seeds and prenatal education theories.
Both “Historical Records · Family of Chu” and “Historical Records · Xia Benji” have records about dystocia. The Book of Songs, which was written around the 11th century BC, contains more than 50 kinds of medicines, including some important obstetrics and gynecology medicines.
“The Biography of Women” said: “Tairen, Wang Ji married as a concubine…she had a body, did not look at evil, did not listen to obscene voices, could not speak arrogantly, could teach a child with a prenatal, and gave birth to a king of literature.” Proposed the embryonic form of the prenatal education theory.
2. The Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (770 BC-X1 BC)
With the advancement of history and the development of medicine, many doctors appeared during this period, such as Hehe, Relief, and Bian Que. In particular, Bian Que once specialized in the medical work of obstetrics and gynecology. During this period, the development of obstetrics and gynecology theory was mainly related to dystocia, eugenics, and embryology. The emergence of “Nei Jing” put forward related theories of gynecology.
“The Twenty-Three Years of Zuo Zhuan·Xi Gong” said: “Men and women have the same surname, and their birth is not Fan (fan, meaning reproduction).” It is clearly stated that marriage between close relatives is harmful to the reproduction of offspring. In terms of embryology, there is a record of pregnancy in October in the “Wen Zi Nine Shou Pian”.
The first surviving medical masterpiece in the Warring States Period, “Internal Classics”, established the theoretical basis of Chinese medicine. It also proposed basic theories of women’s anatomy, menstrual physiology, and pregnancy diagnosis. It also preliminarily discussed the pathology of some women’s diseases. Such as blood collapse, dysmenorrhea, infertility, intestinal tan, stone rash, etc. “Neijing” also records the first seed medicine for the treatment of blood dryness and amenorrhea, four squid bone and one luru pill. The theory of Neijing laid the foundation for the development of Chinese medicine obstetrics and gynecology.
3. Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC-220 AD)
In the Qin Dynasty, there have been records of obstetrics and gynecology medical records. According to the “Historical Records · Biography of Bianque Canggong”, Taicang Gongchun Yuyi pioneered the “diagnosis book”, among which the cases of “Han women do not get better in the cold moon” and “Wang Meiren is pregnant with children but not breasts” are the earliest cases of obstetrics and gynecology.
In the Han Dynasty, the department of obstetrics and gynecology had further development. In the medical system, there were “female doctors”, the first records of medical abortion, conjoined fetuses, and stillbirth removal by surgery, and a number of obstetrics and gynecology monographs appeared.
Among the cultural relics unearthed from the Mawangdui Han Tomb is the Book of Prenatal Birth, which was written in the second century BC, and is the earliest surviving monograph on obstetrics and gynecology. According to the “Han Shu·Yi Wen Zhi”, “Women’s and Infant Prescriptions” (26 BC) were recorded. Zhang Zhongjing claimed to have used “Titus Medicine Records” in the preface of “Treatise on Febrile Diseases”, and “Sui Zhi” recorded “Zhang Zhongjing’s treatment “Women’s Fang” 1 volume, but unfortunately all have been scattered and lost. There are only three articles about the woman in “The Synopsis of the Golden Chamber” by Zhang Zhongjing. Hua Tuo (112-207 AD), a medical scientist of the same generation as Zhang Zhongjing, was a well-known surgical expert in China. He invented anesthetics (Ma Fei San) and wound medicine (sacred ointment), and successfully performed an abdominal operation. The operation was also successfully performed to remove the stillbirth.
4. Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties and Sui Dynasty (220-618 AD)
During this period, it was mainly the achievements of pulse studies and etiology syndromes that promoted the development of obstetrics and gynecology. Jin and Wang Shuhe’s “Pulse Jing” made the theory and method of pulse diagnosis systematized and standardized. Among them, in the obstetrics and gynecology, they put forward the theories of “jujing” and “avoid years”, and pointed out that “the rule is endless. “Fangzhen” and “Men and Women” described the “li meridians” during childbirth. Later, Nan Qi Chu Cheng wrote 1 volume of “The Last Letter of the Chu Family” (10 chapters), in which the propositions of birth control and late marriage were put forward from the perspective of birth control. Nanqi Xu Wenbo wrote a special book “Treatment of Women’s Gap”, and he had successfully induced labor by acupuncture. Northern Qi Xu Zhicai’s “Monthly Fetal Breeding Law” clearly pointed out the precautions for health maintenance and conditioning in October.
In the Sui Dynasty, in 610 AD, Chao Yuanfang et al. compiled “Theories on the Sources of Diseases”. The book contains 50 volumes, 67 subjects, and 1730 syndromes. There are 8 volumes of women’s diseases in the book, and the etiology and pathogenesis are discussed item by item. And clinical findings, the content is quite rich.
5. Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD)
Following the Sui system in the Tang Dynasty, a relatively complete medical system was established, and the “Superior Medical Office” was established, which was the highest medical education institution and medical institution in the Tang Dynasty, specializing in cultivating medical talents. From the Jin to the Tang Dynasty, clinical medicine has been prospering day by day, and its development is characterized by a gradual trend towards specialization.
At that time, the well-known medical scientist Sun Simiao, who specializes in the fields of internal medicine, gynecology, and pediatrics, wrote “The Essential Prescriptions for Qian Jin”, which was written in 652 AD. Women’s births are listed at the beginning of the volume.
At this time, an important feature of the development of obstetrics and gynecology was the emergence of an existing monograph on obstetrics with relatively complete theories in China, namely Zan Yin’s “Chenbao”, which was written in 852～-856 AD, with 3 volumes, 41 books, and more than 260 square meters. , There is a short comment in front of each door, and an attached party at the end, which has a certain guiding role in the development of obstetrics later.
6. Song Dynasty (960-AD 1279)
The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the Song Dynasty has developed into an independent specialty, and there are obstetrics among the nine departments set by the national medical education regulations. Some important obstetrics and gynecology monographs appeared during this period. Yang Zijian wrote “On Ten Births”, which was written in 1098 AD. “Ten Births” include normal births, injured births, transverse births, miscarriages, partial births, etc., and described various abnormal fetal positions and methods of midwifery. Obstetrics has a greater contribution.
Zhu Duanzhang’s “Hygiene Home Treasure Obstetrics Preparations” was written in 1184 AD. The obstetrics of various obstetrics before the Song Dynasty had fallen into place, and the source was clearly marked, along with the nursing and treatment of newborns. Qi Zhongfu’s “Hundred Questions about Women’s Department” was written in 1220 AD. The book contains two volumes. It summarizes the obstetrics and gynecology diseases into 100 questions and answers them one by one, together with formulas and prescriptions.
In this issue, the greatest achievement in obstetrics and gynecology is Chen Ziming and his book “Women’s Complete Recipe”. This book was written by Chen Ziming in 1237. The book is divided into 8 subjects, including menstrual regulation, various diseases, heir seeking, prenatal education, pregnancy, confinement, labor trouble, and postpartum. , Is an outstanding work at that time, has been popular for more than 300 years, and has a huge influence on later generations of physicians. In addition, there are several monographs on obstetrics and gynecology. In short, TCM obstetrics and gynecology developed rapidly in the Song Dynasty.
7. Jin and Yuan Era (AD 1115-AD 1234; AD 1271-AD 1368)
The Jin-Yuan era was a time when a hundred schools of medicine were contending, and medical schools began to emerge. Liu, Zhang, Li, and Zhu made contributions to obstetrics and gynecology from different angles. There were 13 departments of medicine in Yuan Dynasty, including one obstetrics department.
The academic development of the four masters of Jinyuan and Yuan broadened their thinking on the diagnosis and treatment of obstetrics and gynecology diseases. Liu Wansu’s “Suwen Diseases, Qi and Life Protection Collection”, written in 1184 AD, reflects his academic thoughts. At the same time, the book “Women’s Pregnancy and Childbirth” said: “Women and children before Tiangui is not practiced, all belong to Shaoyin; when Tiangui is practiced, they are all based on Jueyin; Tiangui is extinct, and it belongs to the Taiyin meridian.” The regularity of women’s physiology is explained. Zhang Zihe’s “Confucianism is a relationship”, written in 1228 AD, uses the three methods of sweating, vomiting, and lowering to drive away diseases. This view is also often used in gynecology. Li Dai believes that “internal injuries to the spleen and stomach, all diseases begin to regenerate”, and the treatment focuses on the method of invigorating the spleen and promoting yang and dehumidification. This method is also widely used in gynecology and has received good results. At the same time, Li Dai wrote “The Secret Collection of the Orchid Chamber”, which was written in 1276 AD. The book states: “Women’s blood collapse is due to the deficiency of yin in the kidneys. They cannot guard the envelopment phase fire, so the blood will collapse when it goes away.” The treatment of menstrual diseases (mainly “dysfunctional uterine bleeding”) is instructive. In theory, Zhu Zhenheng put forward the theory that “the yang is always surplus, the yin is always insufficient”, and the treatment is focused on the preservation of the yin essence. In addition, Zhu Zhenheng’s “Gezhi Yulun” was written in 1347, and the book “Conception Theory” said: “Yin and Yang” Coitus, fetal pregnancy is coagulation, where it is hidden, the name of the uterus, one is on the bottom, and there are two differences on the top, one on the left and one on the right.” For the first time, it clearly described the shape of the uterus.
8. Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-AD 1644)
There were 13 departments in the medical system and medical education of the Ming Dynasty. According to the “History of the Ming Dynasty·Hundred Officials”, there was a department of gynecology. There are many monographs on gynecology in this period. Xue Ji’s “Medical Cases of Xue Family” was written in 1528-1544 AD. It contains 16 medical cases and 28 volumes. The main purpose is to establish the theory of the true yin and true yang of the gate. It also has an important influence on the theory of gynecology. Wan Quan’s “Guangxi Minutes” and “Women’s Secrets” were written in 1549-1615 AD. Wang Kentang wrote “The Criterion of Syndrome and Treatment: Women’s Department”, which was written in 1602-1607 AD, in which the treatment of gynecological diseases is very detailed. Wu Zhiwang’s “Compendium of Jiyin” was written in 1620 AD. In the book, it is widely collected and the outline is detailed. The information is relatively complete, but there are few opinions. Li Mingzhen wrote “Compendium of Materia Medica”, written in 1578 AD, and authored “Examination of the Eight Channels of the Odd Meridian” and “Science of the Margins of the Lake”, which discussed the theory of menstruation and the eight channels of the Odd Meridian, and contributed to the development of the theory of menstruation in Chinese medicine. Made an important contribution. Ming·Zhao Yangkui wrote “Handan Posthumous Manuscripts” for his later years. The Zhao family’s doctrine of the sole responsibility of life and family was also brought into play in “Handan Posthumous Manuscripts”. Zhang Jiebin wrote “The Complete Book of Jingyue”, which was written in 1624 AD. The whole book contains 64 volumes and 3 volumes of “Women’s Regulations”, emphasizing that the yang, qi, yin and essence are biochemically interacting with each other, forming a school of comprehensive warming and nourishing, which is the development of gynecological theory and have important meaning. The Compendium of Medicine by Lou Ying, the Introduction to Medicine by Li Zing, and the Ancient and Modern Medicine Jian by Gong Xin, etc., also have incisive expositions on gynecological diseases.
In this period, the research and interpretation of the theory of kidney and Mingmen in Chinese medicine has theoretically had a significant impact on obstetrics and gynecology, but it has not attracted widespread attention in clinical obstetrics and gynecology. Although there are many books on obstetrics and gynecology, most of them are limited to the collation of previous discussions.
9. Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China (1636-AD 1949)
In the Qing Dynasty, obstetrics and gynecology were collectively referred to as gynecology or gynecology. There were many books on obstetrics and gynecology in Qing Dynasty, and they spread widely. Fu Shan’s “Fu Qingzhu Nǚke” was compiled by later generations. The book uses the liver, spleen, and kidney to establish the theory of syndrome differentiation. Xiao Gengliu’s “Female Division Jinglun”, written in 1684, is rich in content and sometimes has his own opinions. One volume of “Darson” written by Zhizhai layman, written in 1715 AD, discusses the methods of pre-fetal, labor, and post-natal care, and the treatment of dystocia. It is simple and easy to understand. The “Golden Mirror of Medicine”, edited by Wu Qian and others, was written in 1742 AD. This book was compiled by a national organization and contains “Gynecological Heart Methods”. Widely spread and become a must-read reference book for doctors. Shen Yao sealed the “Shen Family Compendium of Women’s Science}, which was published in 1850 by Wang Yuying’s proofreading. The whole book is composed of 2 volumes. Other works, such as Chen Shiduo’s “The Secret Record of the Stone Chamber”, Xu Dachun’s “Lantai Guifan”, Ye Tianshi’s “Ye Tiantu Nvke”, Shen Jinao’s “Gynecological Jade Ruler”, Wu Daoyuan’s “The Essentials of Nǚke”, Chen Lianfang’s “Encyclopedia of Gynecological Secrets”, etc.; the monographs on fetal birth include Yan Chengzhai’s “Mental Method of Obstetrics”, “Mental Method of Obstetrics” by Wang Puzhai, “The Complete Book of Pregnancy” by Shan Yangxian, and “Collection of Pregnancy and Pregnancy” by Zhang Yaosun.
In the Republic of China, one of the most significant contributions to gynecology is Zhang Xichun’s “Medical Integrity in Chinese and Western Records), which was written in 1918 AD. There is also Zhang Shanlei’s “Shen Family Compilation of Women’s Subjects”, which was written in 1933. The liver and kidney doctrines advocated in the book are mostly self-knowledge and must be invented. It has been used as a textbook and has been widely circulated.
In short, there are no less than dozens of obstetrics and gynecology monographs in the Qing Dynasty. The most influential ones in theory and practice are “Fu Qingzhu Nǚke”, “Dasheng Pian”, “Yi Zong Jinjian · Gynecological Heart Techniques”. “And “Shen Family Compendium of Women’s Subjects”.
10. The development of gynecology after the founding of the People’s Republic of China (after 1949)
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the cause of traditional Chinese medicine has been greatly developed, and the theory of traditional Chinese medicine gynecology has been further organized and improved. After 1956, various provinces and cities successively established colleges of traditional Chinese medicine, successively compiled six editions of the unified textbook “Chinese Medicine Gynecology”, published the “Encyclopedia of Chinese Medicine · Chinese Medicine Gynecology”, and the teaching reference series “Chinese Medicine Gynecology”. A batch of internal teaching materials and gynecology monographs. Medical education at different levels of doctoral and master’s degrees has been carried out, and a large number of TCM gynecological talents have been cultivated.
At the same time, there have been many new results of the integration of Chinese and Western medicine. For example, in 1964, the “Research on the Kidney” of the Zangxiang Special Research Group of Shanghai First Medical College, which included “the treatment of anovulatory functional uterine bleeding and the discussion of the pathological mechanism” and “the classification of syndromes of pregnancy poisoning in traditional Chinese medicine” And its treatment rules”; in the 1960s, the First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical College “integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy”; in 1978, the Jiangxi Provincial Women’s Health Hospital “conization of traditional Chinese medicine for early cervical cancer” and acupuncture to correct fetal position, prevention and treatment Difficult delivery, etc., provide new clues and ways for the development of TCM gynecology.
In the above, only brief historical materials of the development of TCM gynecology are listed for learning and reference. The development of TCM gynecology has made a great contribution to the reproduction and prosperity of the Chinese nation. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct in-depth study and research on TCM gynecology.
Welcome to doctors and world clinics for cooperation! There is also an opportunity to introduce Western Gynecology directly to Chinese patients or deepen the research of gynecologists on TCM Gynecology.