Lionesses of the Iranian throne: who were they?

 Armenian prince and nephew and successor of Mahin Banu, the ruler of Armenia and a wise woman who was the faithful wife of Khosrow Parviz. At that time, Armenia was one of the small cities of Iran and the Shah of Armenia was under the control of the Shah of Iran. Khosro Parviz and Shirin created an epic that will always remain in history. Shirin gave birth to four children named Khosrow named Nestor, Shahriyar, Foroud and Mardansheh, all of whom were killed in prison. The story of her love with Khosrow Parviz and her love affair with Farhad is famous in Iranian literature. After Khosrow Parviz was killed by a young officer named Mehr Hormoz (whose father was a half-day border guard of Babylon and Iraq and had been punished by Khosrow Parviz two years earlier), she told his son Shirviyeh that Queen of Iran, I have to perform the best mourning ceremony for your father Khosrow Parviz, and while she had the most beautiful clothes and make-up, she calmly paid homage to Khosrow Parviz’s body with the priests and elders.

Daghdaviyeh or Dughdoo is the mother of Zoroaster who was originally from the city of Rey. There she fought against the dungeons and carpets that misled the people and constantly demanded ransom and sacrifice from them and made religion a means to achieve their unjust desires and wishes. When her parents saw that her life was in danger, they sent him to Azerbaijan to one of their relatives.


Kasandan or Kasandaneh was the only wife of Cyrus the Great, the queen of Iran (Queen of the World), the daughter of Farnaspeh of the princesses and the daughter of Farnaspeh of the Achaemenid dynasty, who were considered nobles of Persia, and her ancestors were descendants of the Persian king for several generations. Kasandan was the queen of 28 Asian countries and always reigned with her husband Cyrus the Great, and after him was considered the first powerful person and politician in the Achaemenid court. She had five children, Cambyses, Berdia, Atossa, Roxane, and Artistone. Each of the descendants of Kasandan and Cyrus the Great played a decisive role in the history of the Achaemenids, and the signs show that they had a special upbringing.


According to Herodotus: Cassandan died on November 6, 539 BC, and when she died in Babylon for six days, everyone was called to public mourning. Cassandan died before Cyrus, and after him Cyrus remained in great sorrow and chose to be alone forever and with the respect of his wife. The tomb of Empress Kasandaneh in Pasargadae is next to the tomb of Cyrus the Great.

Athosa literally means handsome. It also means power and capability. Athosa (550-475 BC) Queen of Persia is one of the most prominent women in the history of ancient Iran. She was the daughter of Cyrus the Great and Cassandan, the sister of Cambyses, and the wife of two Achaemenid kings, Cambyses and Darius I, and the mother of Xerxes.


Athosa was a beautiful lady, both a poet and a writer, who taught Persian literature to Persian teenagers. Because of her good intellect, Darius consulted with her on national and decisive issues and also had full confidence in him. If Darius marched into an area, the Royal Council would be formed to run the affairs of the country, and the head and supreme leader of the Royal Council was Lady Atossa.


Herodotus says of her political life: Atossa had tremendous power and was interested in accompanying her husband to the battlefield. She has always been an intellectual helper of Darius the Great and has personally commanded several great battles or carried out them with his war plans. No information is available on her death. We only know that he was alive until Xerxes returned from the Greek war. Probably her tomb is next to the tomb of Darius the Great in Naghsh-e Rostam.It is said that “Homa” in Iranian mythology is based on the memories of “Atosa, the Persian queen” and the events of Darius and Xerxes, his wife and son. “Homa” is a lucky chicken in popular legends, which is sometimes referred to as the “chicken of happiness”, and in these beliefs it is the same chicken that if its shadow falls on someone, it makes him happy, and if it sits on someone’s back, it makes her happy. Shahriari said and maybe the word “Homayoun and Homayouni” is related to this name.

Yutab literally means radiant and unmistakable. Yutab has been named as one of the female Iranian commanders. Yutab was the sister of Aryobarzan, the famous commander of the Imperial Army, Darius III. In the Bakhtiari mountains, she blocked the way for Alexander, but a traitorous Iranian showed the way to Alexander, and he invaded Iran from another direction. Yutab is also mentioned as the king of Atropathan (Azerbaijan) in the years 20 BC to 20 AD. Ario Barzan and Yutab were killed on the way home and left an eternal name Artemis.

Artemis or Artemis literally means big word right. She is the first and only lady admiral in the world. Greek historians have called her the beauty, prominence, and sobriety of all women of the day.


Artemis Artemis is the first Iranian woman sailor to receive her admiralty order from Xerxes around 2494 years ago. In 484 BC, Achaemenid Xerxes ordered a naval mobilization to fight the Greeks. Artemis, the governor of the land of Carba, joined the Iranian navy with five warships he commanded. In this battle, Iran succeeded in capturing Athens. In this battle, the Iranian ground force consisted of 800,000 infantry and 80,000 cavalry. The Iranian navy had 1,200 warships and 300 cargo ships. Artemis also took part in the Salamine War between the Iranian and Greek navies in 480 BC and showed great bravery and was praised by friends and acquaintances. In one of the most difficult conditions in the battle of Salamis, she was able to save a part of the Iranian navy from the danger of destruction with unparalleled courage and bravery, and for this reason she was honored to receive the command of the admiral from Xerxes. She also proposed to Xerxes, but the marriage did not take place. In the 1960s (the 1940s), the Iranian navy first named a large ship breaker after a woman, Artemis. The destroyer Artemis was launched during the service of “Admiral Farajollah Rasaei” and for many years on the waters of the Gulf, Persia was always guarding the shores of Iran.

Gerdafarid or Gurdafarin is one of the heroes of the land of Iran, whom history remembers as the scorpion girl. In the story of Rostam and Sohrab, Gerdafarid fought with Sohrab in a man’s clothes and was caught by him, but she was able to save herself from Sohrab by tact. The great Ferdowsi mentions her as a brave woman and a hero of the pure land. Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh also states: She was a woman on horseback, always known for her inner war.

The wise wife of Mehrab Kaboli and Rudabeh’s mother and Rostam’s grandmother, who played an important role in Zal and Rudabeh’s marriage and Rudabab’s father Mehrab’s consent to this union. In short, Sindakht is one of the wisest figures in the Shahnameh.

RudabehThe daughter of Mehrab Kaboli and the wife of Zal and the mother of Rostam, who according to Shahnameh’s love for Zal is one of the most beautiful scenes in Shahnameh Rudabeh performed the first cesarean section when Rostam was born. Therefore, such deliveries should be called “Rostami” and not cesarean section. Because Caesar was born centuries after the birth of Rostam.

Tahmine the beautiful daughter of the king of Samangan, who was Rostam’s wife one night. The fruit of that birth is Sohrab, whose life story and painful death at the hands of his father are detailed in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. Tahmineh did not marry despite her youth and beauty in order to spend all her time raising Sohrab.

Lady Gashsab (abbreviation for Gashnsp) means “lady who owns a stallion” and no one could resist her during the war. Lady Goshensab, daughter of Rostam and wife of “Gio”, whose name is mentioned a lot in Borzoo and Bahmannameh. One of her most famous anecdotes is the battle between Faramarz, Rostam and Lady Gashnesb, who throws the heroes to the ground while wrestling. The bravery of this famous Iranian lady is famous. She also has a poem of her own, a copy of which is now available in the National Library of Persia and in the National Library of Britain.

Shahin Siraj, researcher of literature and history: “If we want to open the heroic value of Rostam’s daughter, the epic value and epic role of this girl starts from where Bahman Esfandiar attacks Sistan on Esfandiar’s blood hatred and throws Zal in a cage and with Faramarz, the son Rustam fights and eventually she is overthrown. In my opinion, the only person in the Rostam family who really shows a military authority against Bahman and defends Rostam’s beliefs is Bano Gashnesb. She is the one who continues this battle and like her father who has always been a supporter of the kings of Iran but never gave up. Z

According to the religious and historical book, the queen of Iran sat on the throne of Iran during the time of Kianian. She is mentioned as the seventh queen of Kiani, who has also been called “Homay Chehr Azad” and “Homay Vahmoun”. She was the mother of Darab and sat on the throne of Iran after “Vohman Sepandatan”. She was the beautiful queen of Iran for all thirty years. Much has been written about her behavior and deeds that she never made a mistake during his thirty years of reigned and the people of her time always lived in comfort and health.

Minister of Treasury and Finance of the Government of Iran during the reign of Ardavan IV Parthian. According to the Parthian, the work of the orientalist Diakonov, she organized the taxes and did not make the slightest mistake in managing the finances, and prospered the economy of the Parthian empire. As it turns out, one of her great tasks in collecting the country’s wealth was to avoid unnecessary expenses, especially of courtiers, and the other was to collect taxes and tributes from the income of the rich.

Pourandokht was the empress of Iran during the Sassanid period and was a woman who ruled over more than 10 Asian countries. After Ardeshir Shirviyeh, as the twenty-fifth Sassanid king, she sat on the throne of Iran and ruled. Pouran Khosrow means Pourandokht, daughter of Khosrow Parviz, who was a competent and wise woman, but unfortunately due to the turbulent situation of that time and the long wars between Iran and Rome during Khosrow Parviz and the influence of Mazdak religion and people’s dissatisfaction with the current situation and in one of the most difficult Historical circumstances of Iran ruled the country for several months, and after her death, the government passed to Azram Dokht.Queen Azarmi Dokht, Azram, Azarmi, (630 AD or 631 AD) (meaning the ageless daughter) The Persian female emperor and the thirty-second Sassanid emperor, the daughter of Khosro Parviz, the son of Hormoz, the son of Anoushirvan. They took over the kingdom. The ruler of Khorasan, General Farrokhormoz, who was one of the serious claimants of the monarchy, asked the queen to marry him. While Azarmidakht publicly promised to marry her, he secretly arranged for her assassination (according to certain culture, such as “Azarmidokht could not openly oppose”). Rostam, the son of Farrokh Hormozd, at the behest of his father, marched into the capital and after the overthrow of Azrmidokht, blinded the Sassanid queen. Azrami Dokht reigned for four months. The circumstances of the queen’s death is unknown. 

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