Wushu culture originated from Chinese traditional culture. Its epistemology and methodology are directly related to Taoism. It is deeply influenced by Taoism, Qi theory, and the harmony of nature and man. “Freedom in movement and quiet”; “Using softness to overcome rigidity, and combining rigidity and softness”; “Late come first, advocating the next and retreating” strategic theory. Taoism is regarded as one of the theoretical foundations of martial arts culture.
The relationship of Taoism to martial arts
About martial arts
Chinese martial arts is a kind of native national traditional sports created and formed by the Chinese nation in the long-term production and labor. The reason for its strong charm is that it is rooted in the fertile soil of Chinese culture with thousands of years of history and contains profound Eastern philosophy. In its long process of occurrence and development, Wushu has been deeply nourished by Chinese culture, and has formed a unique form of expression of Eastern human body culture that is different from modern Western sports.
The influence of Taoism on martial arts
The influence of Taoism on martial arts is undeniable. It is deeply rooted in martial arts, a cultural form that takes the human body as a carrier, and becomes a part of Chinese martial arts. It is very important for the formation of Wushu theoretical framework and the development of martial arts skills effect.
The influence of Taoism on the theory of martial arts
Taoism mainly inherited Lao Tzu’s philosophical thoughts. “Tao generates all things” is Lao Tzu’s basic viewpoint on the formation of the universe. “Tao” was proposed by Lao Tzu, and Dao has two meanings: one refers to the laws of Universe; the other is the origin and nature of everything in the universe. Taijiquan has absorbed this thought to give rise to the kaleidoscopic changes of offense and defense, movement, rigidity and softness, virtual reality, which are opposite to each other, and mutual cause and effect. In fact, it is the embodiment of the theory of “Tao generates all things”. Regarding the origin of things, Lao Tzu believes that “the Tao is the mystery of all things” and “like the sect of all things”. The term “Wuji” in the basic theory of Tai Chi also comes from “Lao Zi”. Wang Zongyue’s “Taijiquan Theory” said: “Taiji is born without extreme, movement and static, the mother of yin and yang.” There is a “li” in the ever-changing technique, just as in the “Taijiquan”: “Although there are many changes, the principle is the only one.” In essence, it is what Lao Tzu calls “Tao”. Sun Lutang’s “Fist Meaning and Truth” says: “Heaven is the root of yin and yang, and the body of all things. In the material is theory, in boxing is the inner strength. Inner martial arts, there are three schools of Xingyi, Taiji, and Bagua, “Tao is boxing.” The root of it”. It can be seen that the influence of “Tao begets all things” on martial arts theory is obvious.
2. The influence of Qi theory in Taoism on Qi cultivation and training in Wushu
In martial arts theory, “qi” occupies an important position. “Qi” is regarded as the original force and foundation of martial arts, and is the essence of martial arts life. Zhuangzi is a major master of Taoism after Laozi, so later generations will be referred to as Lao Zhuang. Zhuangzi interprets the category of “things” for the first time, thinking that “everyone who has a cross-talk is a thing.” Such a thing is “qi” for Zhuangzi. He said, “The birth of human beings is the gathering of qi. To gather is to live, and to dissipate is to die. If death and life are disciples, what can I do! Therefore, everything is one. Therefore, it is said: The whole world has one breath.” The unity of all things is actually It is the unity of “qi”. The various forms, charms and stunts of martial arts are the evolution and embodiment of “qi”.
Chinese martial artists believe that external strength is easy to achieve, but ignoring internal strength training can hardly reach the peak of martial arts. Therefore, the main purpose of martial arts health maintenance is to nourish and practice qi. Martial artists obviously feel the existence of “qi” in the long-term perceptual experience. Taijiquan requires “Qi sinks in the dantian”, Xingyiquan “gathers qi in the dantian”, Shaolin kungfu – that “Qi runs through the dantian”, etc., which incorporates the methods of nourishing qi and practicing qi into “Zanggong”, and guides the breath with mind to match strength. Exercise. The first chapter of “The Secrets of Shaolin Boxing” by the master of Zun Wo Zhai is “Qigong Explanation”, “The learning of Qi cultivation, the way is the return”, “The learning of Qi training, the breathing is the work”. It can be seen that “Qi theory” occupies an important position in the composition of martial arts theory.
The influence of the holistic view of “Heaven and Man as one” on martial arts skills and training methods
The concept of “the unity of man and nature” is also a manifestation of Taoist ontology and an important point of Taoism. Taoism believes that “heaven” means “nature”, and “combination” refers to the development and integration of things to produce new things. The so-called “harmony of heaven and man” has two meanings: one is the harmony between man and nature. The universe is naturally a big world, and man is a small world, subordinate to the big world of nature. The second is the correspondence between heaven and man, or the connection between man and nature, which means that man and nature are essentially interlinked. Therefore, everything should conform to nature and not violate nature in order to survive and develop, that is, the ultimate pursuit of all things. The goal is the harmonious unity of the universe, nature and man.
In the long-term practice of Chinese martial arts, it has been discovered that the carrier and object of Wushu, the human body and the universe, are inherently closely related. Therefore, in martial arts practice, the former must be adapted to the latter and the latter must be adapted to achieve the goal of the latter. Only by unity and unanimity can we successfully realize the “harmony of man and nature”.
Lao and Zhuang thoughts also believed that the development of man should conform to thecoordination between man and nature, so as to form a united whole between man and nature. This overall view of focusing on “correspondence between nature and humans” is consistent with the uniqueness of traditional martial arts that emphasizes up and down, inside and outside, movement and static, separation and integration, and unity. Mainly embodied in: First of all, martial arts, especially internal martial arts practice, requires the unity of form and mind. Secondly, traditional martial arts practice requires the integration of the body and nature. The inner family kungfu method headed by Taijiquan has certain requirements for the practice place and time. When practicing the exercises, it is required to perceive the qi of all things in the body, and the essence, qi, god and all things in nature can be integrated to achieve the best effect of both internal and external cultivation. For example, Taijiquan, Xingyiquan and Baguaquan are based on it as the guiding ideology.
The influence of Taoism on the theory of martial arts tactics
Chinese martial arts is a brilliant pearl in traditional Chinese culture. In its long-term development and reproduction, the epistemology and methodology of martial arts culture are directly related to Taoist thought, especially the formation and development of martial arts strategic theories. Take “Tao De Jing” as its theoretical origin.
Lao Tzu believes that normal formation can be transformed into strange formation, kindness can be transformed into evildoing, disasters are accompanied by signs of blessing, and wellbeing in the roots of misfortune. According to this law of transformation, Lao Tzu proposed “the movement against the Tao, and the use of the Tao for the weak”. In nature, new things are always weak, and new and weak things are always full of vigor and vitality, so weakness is life.
Therefore, in Chapter 52 of the Tao Te Ching, Lao Tzu puts forward the human law and the natural law of “keeping the soft and strong when the day is strong”, and observes various natural phenomena through life practice, and puts forward that “the world is not softer than the water, but attacks the tough. The strong cannot win”, which means that water is the weakest substance and can break through all kinds of hard things. According to these natural phenomena and laws, Lao Tzu put forward the theory that “softness beats strength, weak strength beats strong”; “knows its glory and guards its shame”; “knows its whiteness and guards its blackness”. Lao Tzu knows what a strong man is, but he is content with being feminine; what is glory, but he is content with humiliation. This concept of keeping the soft and respecting the weak and advocating the weak has a great influence on the Wushu theory and strategic theory. It constitutes “stopping with static, moving and static freely” in martial arts drills and fighting; “using softness to overcome rigidity, and combining rigidity and softness”; The tactical theory of “coming first, admiring the next and retreating”
Taoism is the foundation of martial arts theory, and its epistemology and methodology have had a great impact on Wushu practice methods, theoretical research, and strategy and tactics. In particular, the influence of Taoism, Qi theory, and the harmony of nature and man in Taoist thought has formed “stopping with static, moving and static freely”; “using softness to overcome rigidity, and combining rigidity and softness”; “late development comes first, admiration and retreat” Strategic theory. Today, with the continuous development of science and technology, Wushu inherits and develops the rich philosophy of Taoism, the thinking and exploration of nature, and it still has a very significant guiding significance for the enrichment and development of Wushu sports. As martial arts as a kind of fitness and competitive sports gradually enter the world, its rich and profound culture will also spread to the world.
Taoism is the foundation of Wushu and will surely go to the world.