Central Asia as an beautiful oecumene of world civilization is a region that was considered only as part of the Islamic or Turkic civilizations. Many great Central Asian personalities of antiquity, especially the Middle Ages, are known in the world not only as Islamic, but also as Arab or Persian scientists, philosophers, poets (Averroes, Avicenna, Rumi, etc.). The Turkic civilization has unambiguously closed itself only on the history and culture of modern Turkey, the ancient roots of which actually lie in Central Asia. Therefore, there was and is every reason to study this region as a special multiethnic civilization with a rich history and culture.
Central Asia is such a point of the world, connecting North and South, West and East, through which not only trade routes, like the Great Silk Road, diplomatic, research, confessional missions passed from ancient times, but also from it the great conquests of the world began (Attila, Tamerlane, Babur), the historical campaign to the East of Alexander the Great, who founded the city of Iskenderabad (present-day Khujand in Tajikistan) and took away the Kyrgyz nut, which became known in the world as a “walnut”, left a deep trace here, Genghis Khan, whose offspring played a great role in the history and culture of the region. All these interconnections gave rise to many cross-cultural values of the Central Asian civilization, giving it a special flavor of receptivity and openness.
Historically, its geopolitical appeal remained in force in the new era of globalization, which began as an era of world colonization. So, for example, at the junction of the XIX-XX centuries. For the colonization of Central Asia, there was a struggle between Great Britain and Russia. Globalization as russification continued during the Soviet period, now the region is in the center of the sphere of influence of three powers – China, Russia and America. The region is particularly active in the Chinese expansion, which began with the commercial conquest of the Central Asian market with head markets in Kyrgyzstan to the widespread economic and cultural introduction. Today in Kyrgyzstan, in addition to countless open and shadow Chinese enterprises, faculties and centers of Chinese culture and language in many educational institutions, Confucius Institutes are being created.Aroused a great political and international resonance, in addition to the territorial manipulations of China through buying (Uzengi-Kuush), leasing (Arpa), etc., his statement and inclusion in the UNESCO program of the Kyrgyz epic “Manas”, ranking it among two of its own great epics … Therefore, in the period of a new era of globalization, the problem of intraregional integration of Central Asia acquires particular relevance, both for its self-preservation as a special civilizational area, and for stabilizing the region as an integral organism. And this is due, on the one hand, to the peculiarities, on the other, to the similarities that equally serve as a unifying principle.ranking him in a number of his own two great epics. Therefore, in the period of a new era of globalization, the problem of intraregional integration of Central Asia acquires particular relevance, both for its self-preservation as a special civilizational area, and for stabilizing the region as an integral organism. And this is due, on the one hand, to the peculiarities, on the other, to the similarities that equally serve as a unifying principle.
The main feature of the region is the multi-ethnicity of its population – Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Turkmens, differing from each other in the geographical conditions of the ethnic territories of the peoples of the region, Kyrgyz and Tajiks are settled in the mountains with convenient pastures for cattle breeding and huge water-energy resources, the Kazakhs have an endless steppe with ore deposits and oil sources, the deserts of the Turkmen and the valleys of the Uzbeks are rich in natural gas, as well as oil deposits, not to mention the Fergana semi-subtropical valley, inhabited alternately by Uzbeks, Tajiks and Kyrgyz. This is the unique interdependence of the peoples of the region, and there are a great many examples in the world, especially in non-irrigated agriculture in Europe, subtropical countries, when the peoples of one region,even being in the past as part of a single state, after gaining independence, they do well without each other, living an independent life.