Literature in India is indeed such a vast and glorious aspect, that it cannot be imagined or to be read as a mere introduction. It can only be said that, the beginning of the ancient history of India, Indian literature was to remain there forever, constantly emerging from versions of metamorphosis. The sheer breathtaking and unsurpassed elements contained within them can variously reflect the vibrancy of Indian civilization, which has matured for ages. In fact, when a developing society is talked about, one can never ignore literary traditions, because no one can really separate the Indian population from Indian literature. Literature is very integral to a nation and its historical development.
Indian literature envisions being the oldest in the world. With vast cultural diversification, India has about two dozen officially recognized languages. Over a period of thousands of years, vast literature has been rendered in various languages in India. One element that can also be made prominent is that a large part of Indian literature focuses on devotion, drama, poetry and songs. Actually, the history of Indian literature lies in some such lines. The Sanskrit language particularly dominated the early Indian literary scene, while languages such as Prakrit and Pali were also likely to have a fair share, as they were the dialects of the common people. Interestingly enough, it was actually Hindu literary traditions that have predated a large part of Indian culture. These traditions are ideally reflected in the Vedas (including the Rigveda, Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda and the Atharvaveda) and epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Texts like Vastu Shastra (Architecture), Artha Shastra (Political Science) and Kamasutra are indeed the true mirror image of Indian literary excellence.
Indian literature and its traditional development, as can be accepted from historical times, was primarily one of verse and also essentially oral. History suggests that the earliest works of literature in India were composed for singing or recital, and were broadcast for several generations before finally ending. As a result, even the most ancient inscriptions of a text can be read more often than the envisaged date of its creation for several centuries. Additionally, perhaps because Indian literature is either religious or is reworking from mythological writings accepted as Sanskrit epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata and Puranas, that the author remains anonymous and anonymous. Biographical accounts of the lives of most earlier Indian writers survive only in later stories and legends.
The linguistic and cultural influences of Indian literature are perhaps the most ancient and erstwhile elements that came to light in the light of Indian writers gradually developing after the initiation of written literature. In fact, this aspect is also one to see in Indian literature, that with a specific age and its society, times and sections in literary classes have changed over time. Literary celebrities have thus felt a responsibility to successfully mirror the age and its timing and profound influences to take a responsibility on their shoulders. A large part of traditional Indian literature is derived not just from Sanskrit literature, but from Buddhist and Jain texts written in the Pali language and other Prakrit (medieval dialects of Sanskrit).
It is known that Urdu poets have almost always used ghazal for love poetry in Persian forms. Urdu then used it as a literary language in Delhi and Lucknow. The most prominent achievement of Urdu song is the ghazals of Mir and Ghalib. Urdu poets were mostly sophisticated and cultured. And it was also in this way that the Indian regional literature developed under ephemeral personalities, ready to encapsulate every detail. Indian literature is thus a vast repository of non-literary works on various subjects such as law, health, astronomy, grammar, administration. They are also a part of the quintessential Indian literary heritage. India has truly given birth to its own separate set of litterateurs and literature, still in the process of continuous advancement.
The full bloom of the Radha-Krishna cult, under the Hindu mystics Chaitanya in Bengal and Vallabhacharya in Mathura, required bhakti (personal devotion to the Almighty), thus initiating the devotional influence in Indian literature. Bhakti is also called Rama (an incarnation of Vishnu), especially in the Awadhi (Eastern Hindi) compositions of Tulsi Das; His Ramcharitmanas (Lake of Acts of Rama, 1574–7) became official depictions in the devotional style of Indian literature. The early Gurus or founders of Sikhism, especially Guru Nanak and Guru Arjuna, had devotion to their concepts of deity. These can be called the first written documents in Punjabi and form part of the Adi Granth (first, or original, book), a sacred book of Sikhs, first compiled by Guru Arjuna in 1604. During the 16th century, the Rajasthani princess and poet Meera Bai gave devotional songs to Lord Krishna, as did the Gujarati poet Narasimha Mehta, still exacerbating the mystical status of Indian literature.
Sant Kabir and Tulsidas were the greatest exponents of Hindi literature of this period. During the medieval period, Muslim literary traditions are also known to dominate a large part of Indian literature, bringing to a large extent the flourishing and prosperity of Muslim literature. It was also during this Islamic literary boom that the first Indian literary movements were also seen with full vigor. The Muslim rule in the medieval period saw haste and boom in the growth and development of Persian and Urdu literature in India. A vast plurality of literature spanning history, culture and politics was fully written during this period.
With the arrival of the British in India and the sound establishment of the British Raj, Indian literature was no longer the same. Work started in English language. However, as more and more Indians became well versed with the English language, the number of works in English literature began to increase, keeping pace with the British intelligentsia in some British eras. It was right during the British Empire and its critical rule in the 18th or 19th century that the tremendous rise of Indian literary awards and Indian literary organizations began with great pomp. During contemporary, post-independent and post-Partition times, ompteen Indian writers have left their mark on the world English literature scene.