“As long as your flower is alive , your dreams are alive in me. Your eyes are nestled in the trees...”
from Ghazels of Kalim Kashani
Art and literature is the reflection of the political and social ideas of a geography and a country. Destiny is one of the cultural and social factors that are formed within society and in fact expresses theology, folk beliefs and social traditions of that society. Destiny literally means measuring something with something else, sustenance and the flow of God’s command, but the term refers to the predetermined destiny of human beings, which is often unchangeable.
The word destiny has been used in many Persian texts and prose in the sense of destiny, divine judgment and the flow of God’s command and God’s provision for the servants. With the poets like him we seek to answer these questions: What is the degree of destiny in the society of the tenth century based on the poems of Kalim Kashani and in what contexts does it show itself?
Classical Iranian poetry, especially Kalim poetry, has different aspects of destiny in terms of thoughts and artistic elements. Kalim Kashani’s poetry has many thoughts and ideas in terms of social and critical approach. His poetry along the history of Persian poetry is a continuation of the continuous flow of pre-Islamic and post-Islamic Iranian thought. It is before Islam and Iran is after Islam, so the change of government and religion has not been able to eliminate or change the old beliefs such as destiny and determinism. In Kalim Kashani’s poems, attention to destiny is very high, in his opinion, destiny cannot be changed and one must accept eternal destiny. To express such a concept, Kaleem uses words that are synonymous or in close meanings, such as destiny, fate, and fortune.